Self-concept—our overall view of our abilities, behavior, and personality or what we know about ourselves. For the AP® Psychology test, it is most important that you understand the functions I just listed and be familiar with the reticular formation. Psychology Flash Cards. Definition a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable); by random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. 1.3 Describe perspectives employed to understand behavior and mental processes. These two lessons are intended to be used the first two days of school for AP Psychology, but could also work for any introduction course. Triarchic theory of intelligence—Robert Sternberg's idea of three separate and testable intelligences: analytical (facts), practical ("street smarts"), creative (seeing multiple solutions). The therapist takes the client's role, and their supervisor takes on the role of the therapist. Acuity—ability to detect fine details; sharpness of vision. Explicit memory (declarative memory)—long-term memory of facts and experiences we consciously know and can verbalize. Individuation—according to Jung, is the psychological process by which a person becomes an individual, a unified whole, including conscious and unconscious processes. Can be affected by small distortions in the shape of the eye. Deep processing refers to one of the extreme ends of the level of processing spectrum of mental recall through analysis of language used. Opponent-process theory for color vision—proposed mechanism for color vision with opposing retinal processes for red-green, yellow-blue, white-black. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)—a treatment for depression involving repeated pulses through a magnetic coil positioned above the right eyebrow of the patient that does not result in memory loss. Definition. Disorganized schizophrenia (hebephrenia)—a type of schizophrenia characterized primarily by disturbances of thought and inappropriate affect—silly behavior or absence of emotions. Split-half reliability—a method where the score on one half of the test questions is compared with the score on the other half of the questions to see if they are consistent. Modeling—process of watching and imitating a specific behavior; important in observational learning. Discrimination—in classical conditioning, the ability to tell the difference between the CS and stimuli similar to it that do not signal a UCS; in operant conditioning refers to responding differently to stimuli that signal that behavior will be reinforced or not reinforced; in social psychology it refers to unjustified behavior against an individual or group. Cards Return to Set Details. Functionalism—early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment. Title. Even if you have never thought much about this before, you will probably have some answers ready. flashcard set, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Algorithm—problem-solving strategy that involves a slow, step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution to certain types of problems. Rehabilitation psychologists—help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and disabilities resulting from stroke or accidents adapt to their situations. Introversion is a basic personality style characterized by a preference for the inner life of the mind over the outer world of other people. Problem solving—the active efforts we undertake to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that isn't readily attainable. Compulsion—an irresistible impulse to repeat some action over and over although it serves no useful purpose. Blind spot—region of the retina, without receptor cells or vision, where the optic nerve leaves the eye. Thinking—involves mental images, symbols, concepts, and rules of language. Pupil—small, adjustable opening in the iris of the eye that is smaller in bright light and larger in darkness. Deviation IQ—Wechsler's procedure for computing the intelligence quotient; compares a child's score with those received by other children of the same chronological age. Dual processing—processing information on conscious and unconscious levels at the same time. Second order conditioning—learning procedure in which a well-learned conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus resulting in a similar conditioned response. Narcotics—analgesics (pain reducers) that work by depressing the central nervous system and can also depress the respiratory system; includes opiates and synthetic opiates: codeine, heroin, morphine, opium, Percodan, Darvon, Talwin, Dilaudid, methadone, and Demerol. g—According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; generalized intelligence which fuels special abilities. Fraternal twins—also called dizygotic twins; siblings who share about half of the same genes because they develop from two different zygotes. Episodic memories—personal experiences that become consolidated into your long-term memory. Deep Processing. Shallow Processing. Phenylketonuria (PKU)—recessive trait that results in severe, irreversible brain damage unless the baby is fed a special diet low in phenylalanine. Collectivism—primary identification of an individual as a member of a group (family, school, company, community) and goals of the group as one's goals. Validity—the extent to which an instrument measures or predicts what it is supposed to. This gate is opened by small nerve fibers that carry pain signals and is closed by neural activity of larger nerve fibers that conduct most other sensory signals, or by information coming from the brain. Semantic memories—a type of long-term memory that includes general knowledge, objective facts, and vocabulary. Neurocognitive (organic) disorders—characterized by a decline from a previous level of cognitive function in complex attention, learning and memory, executive function, language, perceptual-motor skills, and social cognition. Cardinal trait—defining personality characteristic, in a small number of us, that dominates and shapes our behavior (according to Allport). 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